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Flexible Pavement Evaluation with the Benkelman Beam: Summary Report

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Date Created
1968
Description
This report culminates one of the first projects undertaken for study in the Local Road Research Program. The primary purpose of this project when it was initiated was to develop correlation between the plate bearing test and the Benkelman beam test. Such a correlation, or other acceptable procedure for using the Benkelman beam, would provide a practical and relatively economical means for our local highway engineers to obtain a measure of the strength (load carrying capacity) of flexible pavements.

Minnesota Department of Highways Flexible Pavement Design 1969

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Date Created
1969
Description
The method presently used for flexible pavement design in Minnesota utilizes either average daily traffic (ADT) or heavy commercial average daily traffic (HCADT), along with a designation of 5-ton, 7-ton or 9-ton spring axle loads to categorize traffic. The AASHO soil system is used to classify the subgrade soil in order to vary the required base thickness from sections designated for an A-6 soil. The relative strengths of the layers in the pavement section are indicated by granular equivalent factors. The procedures and levels of thickness required have been established based on experience and performance evaluation on Minnesota Highway pavements for the past 30 years.

The Effects of Studded Tires: A research summary report on the effects of studded tires

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Date Created
1971
Description
The 1969 Legislature of the State of Minnesota under Minnesota Statutes, Chapter 169.72, directed the Commissioner of Highways to conduct an in-depth study on the safety and pavement-wear effects of studded tires. This, the final report of that study, summarizes the research efforts and the results. The report is prepared for the specific use of the 1971 Legislature. The Commissioner of Highways is indebted to the many organizations that cooperated in providing information: The American Oil Company for conducting the pavement-wear tests; Kennametal Corporation for furnishing and installing studs in test tires; Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories for the accident study and analyses; the Minnesota Highway Patrol and other offices of the Department of Public Safety for accident reporting and survey coordination; and the many city police departments for supplementing accident reports with data required for the study. Participating cities were Brooklyn Center, Duluth, Edina, Grand Rapids, Mankato, Minneapolis, , Richfield, Rochester, Roseville, St. Cloud and St. Paul. Special thanks are due those states that contributed funds for defraying part of the project costs: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Utah and Wisconsin. The content, findings, and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the Minnesota Department of Highways. They do not necessarily represent the views of the organizations providing data for the report or the cooperating states.

Sawing Joints to Control Cracking in Flexible Pavements - Progress Report

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Date Created
1974
Description
Transverse joints were sawed in a deep-strength (12") flexible pavement, which is over a granular subgrade, prior to the opening of the roadway to traffic. This research project was located on the two southbound lanes of Interstate 35 near Stacy. Each of the three test sections is approximately 500 feet long. Joints were sawed at 40, 60 and 100-foot intervals for a total of 30 joints. Two 700-foot control sections, where no joints were sawed, were left between the sawed sections for comparison purposes. After 4-1/2 years or 5 winters of service almost complete crack arresting was accomplished in the test sections where joints were sawed at 40 and 60-foot intervals. A few cracks had formed in the test section where joints were sawed at 100-foot intervals. In contrast, numerous cracks had developed in the control sections.

Evaluation of Limestone Bases - Final Report

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Date Created
1975
Description
A number of flexible pavement sections were constructed using limestone aggregate as the base material. As controls for comparison, identical sections were built using gravel base material. Evaluation was based primarily on Benkelman beam deflections. The results indicate that there is not any significant difference in the granular equivalency of the two aggregate types

Including Unincorporated Communities Into The Zoning Database

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Date Created
2022-05
Description
The main focus of this collaborative project was to truly understand, organize and create a spatial database for the all unincorporated communities in the State of Minnesota. An “unincorporated community” means a geographic area having a common social identity without municipal organization or official political designation.

Design and Evaluation of Roadway Widening Sections Through Swamps - Initial Report

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Date Created
1975
Description
Six methods of floating roadway widening sections over a peat swamp were designed and constructed on a two-lane roadway in 1976. The project location was on T.H. 53 between International Falls and Ray. Peat depths ranged from 8 to 15 feet. The investigation to date has shown that widenings can be floated on peat when fill height and loading rates are controlled. Performance of the sections will be monitored for a period of at least three years.

Evaluation of Full Depth Asphalt Pavements - Interim Report

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Date Created
1977
Description
This research investigation, conducted by the Physical Research Unit of the Minnesota Department of Transportation, began in 1971 to learn more about the behavior of Full-Depth Asphalt pavements. The investigation has 26 test sections, each 1200 feet (365.8m) long, of a variety of thicknesses, on a variety of soils. The thicknesses range from approximately five inches (12.7 cm) to 17.5 inches (44.5 cm) and soil types include AASHO soil classification A-2-4's. A-3's. A-4's. A-6's and A-7-6's. These soils include a stabilometer R value range of 5 to 75. The major portions of the research work on this investigation consisted of Benkelman Beam measurements on the zest sections at 50 foot (15.2 m) intervals, taken weekly throughout rh2 spring, bi-weekly throughout the summer and monthly into the fall. The temperature of the upper 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) of the mat was measured each time the Benkelman Beam deflections were taken. These data were then used to determine the effect the temperature and the season had on the deflections and also created a set of correction factors to apply to the measured deflections to adjust the deflections to an 80‘F (26.70C) peak season deflection. The peak season 80‘F (26.7C) mat temperature deflection was then taken to be the standard deflection for each of he test sections. These standard deflections were then compared to the deflections of aggregate base pavements and a relationship was developed between the Full-Depth thickness and the granular equivalency of an equivalent deflection aggregate base pavement. That relationship was then used to develop a Full-Depth bituminous pavement design chart which is the deflection equivalent of the flexible pavement design chart currently in use by Mn/DOT. The serviceability of the Full-Depth has also been monitored in terms of pavement roughness, rut depth and surface condition. The serviceability of the rest sections have nor changed enough to adequately estimate the performance of the test sections at the rime of this report.

Evaluation of Concrete Pavements With Lane Widening, Tied Concrete Shoulders, and Thickened Pavement

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Date Created
1977-09
Description
Field and laboratory pavements were instrumented and load tested to evaluate the effect of lane widening, concrete shoulders, and slab thickness on measured strains and deflections. Eight slabs were tested in the field and two in the laboratory. Pavement slabs were 8- 9-, or 10-in. thick. Other major design variables included the width of lane widening, presence or absence of dowels, presence or absence of a concrete shoulder, joint spacing, and the type of shoulder joint construction. Generally, there was good agreement between measured strains and deflections and values calculated using Westergaard's theoretical equations. Concrete shoulders were effective in reducing the magnitude of measured strains and deflections. A chart is presented to show the reduction in thickness of the outer lane of the mainline pavement that may be permitted with a tied concrete shoulder.

Degradation of Crushed Rock and Gravel Base Materials - Final Report

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Date Created
1982
Description
The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the amount of degradation that occurs during construction of granular bases and the amount which takes place while in service under a bituminous surface. A second objective was to determine which laboratory tests could be used to identify the materials which would degrade the most. Six granular base projects were selected for testing. Six different aggregates were tested and results analyzed for degradation. Assessment of degradation was based on changes in the percent passing the No. 200 sieve of samples taken as produced, after compaction and after being placed in service. Some of the more important findings and conclusions of this study are: 1. Some degradation was noted on all six projects, occurring both during compaction and under traffic. 2. None of the laboratory tests conducted were found to be suitable for indicating aggregates which degrade the most.